The decorative layer is actually a high-resolution photographic image of a stone, tile or wood surface printed on a paper.
The main purpose of the core is to support weight and stress of foot traffic. Core is made of high density fibreboard (HDF) or medium density fibreboard (MDF). High density fibreboard (HDF) is a type of engineered wood product. It’s made from wood fibre extracted from chips and pulped wood waste. HDF for flooring is similar but much harder and denser than particle board or medium density fibreboard (MDF) for flooring. It has a density greater than 50 pounds per cubic foot or 800 kg per cubic meter.
This makes for a perfect stabilising material for laminate floors and engineered hardwood flooring. HDF for flooring cannot be used outside because it absorbs water. A tempered form of hardboard is made by adding oil that becomes a polymer when the board is formed under high temperature and pressure. This gives it resistance against moisture, hardness, and strength. This tempered hardboard can be used in construction siding. MDF is also an engineered product. It is made up of wood wastage fibres glued together with resin or glue under heat and pressure. It is similar to particle board but denser. MDF has a density of 600-800 kg/m³. It also doesn’t warp or swell easily in high humidity areas like bathrooms or washrooms. Once again, these characteristics make it an ideal core layer material for laminate flooring and engineered floors. MDF is also regularly used in the making of furniture, cabinetry, wall panels, shelving, storage units, decorative moulding, and doors. Due to its insular qualities in sound and heat, MDF, is also used in acoustic enclosures such as loudspeakers and sub-woofers. Role of stabilising layer at the bottom is to further unsure strength of laminate flooring.
Laminate flooring offers various surface types that comes out during pressing phase of manufacturing process.
Smooth — A plain finish just like a layer of varnish you would associate with hardwood. Sometimes you can choose between high, medium and low gloss finishes.
Embossed or textured — Some laminates come with a textured finish. Regular embossing is not an exact match up with the grooves of the printed grain but does fool the eye into seeing a surface grain.
Distressed/Hand scraped — Handscraped surface which was reserved only for engineered or solid hardwood floors is now available in laminate flooring. It looks like waves and adds an antiqued look to your laminate floor. Distressed look is an imitation of chisel woodwork on real wood floors.
Embossed in Registration — This type of embossing matches exactly the grain of the wood to make laminate look like wood.